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  • 2012年职称英语理工类C级真题及答案
    来源:河北教育考试网  时间:2012-04-12   字号:      

      2012年职称英语理工类C级真题及答案

          词汇选项:

          阅读理解:

       Making Light of1 Sleep

        All we have a clock located inside our brains. Similar to your bedside alarm clock, your internal clock2 runs on a 24-hour cycle. This cycle,called a circadian rhythm,helps control when

        you wake,when you eat and when you sleep.

        Somewhere around puberty,something happens in the timing of the biological clock. The

        clock pushes forward,so adolescents and teenagers are unable to fall asleep as early as they used to. When your mother tells you it's time for bed,your body may be pushing you to stay up3 for several hours more. And the light coming from your computer screen or TV could be pushing you to stay up even later.

        This shift4 is natural for teenagers. But staying up very late and sleeping late can get your body's clock out of sync with the cycle of light and dark5. It can also make it hard to get out of bed in the morning and may bring other problems,too. Teenagers are put in a kind of a gray cloud6 when they don't get enough sleep,says Mary Carskadon,a sleep researcher at Brown University in Providence,RI7 .It affects their mood and their ability to think and learn.

        But just like your alarm clock,your internal clock can be reset. In fact,it automatically resets

        itself every day. How? By using the light it gets through your eyes.

        Scientists have known for a long time that the light of day and the dark of night play important roles in setting our internal clocks. For years,researchers thought that the signals that synchronize the body's clock8 were handled through the same pathways that we use to see.

        But recent discoveries show that the human eye has two separate light-sensing systems. One system allows us to see. The second system tells our body whether it's day or night.

        词汇:

        circadian/s3:'keidiən/ adj. 昼夜节奏的,生理节奏的

        adolescent/ædəu'lesənt/ n.青少年;adj.青少年的

        puberty/ 'pju:bəti/ n.发育;青春期

        sync/siŋk/ n. (口语)同步;和谐,协调

        synchronize/'siŋkrənaiz / V.(使)同时发生;(使)同步

        注释:

        1.make light of :轻视,不在乎。例如: We should not make light of their achievements.我们不应当低估他们的成就。

        2. your internal clock :指的是第一句中的a clock located inside our brains ,也即是第二段第一句中的the biological clock (生物钟)。

        3. stay up:不睡觉,熬夜

        4. This shift:这种调整。指上文所描述的由于生理时间的变化青少年上床时间越来越晚的现

        象。

        5. get your body's clock out of sync with the cycle of light and dark :打乱了你的生物钟与昼夜时间循环之间的平衡

        6. gray cloud :提不起精神的状态

        7. Brown University in Providence, RI:位于美国罗得岛州普罗维登斯的布朗大学。RI是Rhode

        Island(罗得岛)的首字母缩写;Providence 是罗得岛州的首府。布朗大学是美国一流大学,

        创建于1764 年,是世界闻名的美国“常春藤联盟”(还包括哈佛大学、耶鲁大学、普林斯顿大学、布朗大学、哥伦比亚大学、宾夕法尼亚大学、达特茅斯大学和康奈尔大学)中的一员。

        8. the signals that synchronize the body's clock:平衡生物钟的光信号

        练习:

        1 .The clock located inside our brains is similar to our bedside alarm clock because

        A it controls when we wake,when we eat and when we sleep.

        B it has a cycle of 24 hours.

        C it is a cycle also called circadian rhythm.

        D it can alarm any time during 24 hours.

        2. What is implied in the second paragraph?

        A Young children's biological clock has the same rhythm with that of the teenagers.

        B People after puberty begin to go to bed earlier due to the change of the biological clock.

        C Children before puberty tend to fall asleep earlier at night than adolescents.

        D Teenagers go to bed later than they used to due to the light from the computer screen.

        3. In the third paragraph the author wants to tell the reader that

        A it is natural for teenagers to stay up late and get up late.

        B staying up late has a bad effect on teenagers' ability to think and learn.

        C during puberty most teenagers experience a kind of gray cloud.

        D it is hard for teenagers to get out of bed in the morning.

        4. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the fourth and fifth paragraphs?

        A Our biological clock resets itself automatically.

        B light gets through our eyes and resets our biological clock.

        C Our internal clock as well as the alarm clock can be reset automatically.

        D Our internal clock,like the alarm clock,can be reset.

        5. According to the last two paragraphs, what did the previous researchers think about the human eye's light-sensing system?

        A The human eye had two light-sensing systems.

        B The human eye had one light-sensing system.

        C The human eye could sense the light of day more quickly than the dark of night.

        D The human eye could reset our internal clocks in accordance with the alarm clocks.

        答案与题解:

        1.B 第一段第二句提供了答案。句中的your internal clock 即指a clock located inside our Brains。

        2. C 第二段主要内容是告诉读者,过了青春期(puberty),由于生物钟节奏的变化,青少年(adolescents and teenagers)比以前要晚睡几小时。所以C是该段所隐含的内容。

        3. B 第三段的最后一句直接给出了答案。

        4. C 根据第四和第五段的内容,闹钟和生物钟都可以重新设定时间,但生物钟能通过眼睛接

        受的日光来自动调节生理节奏。所以A、B和D都是这两段中所述内容,C是正确选择,因为闹钟不能自动重新设定时间。

        5.B 问题使用的是过去时,问的是研究者在最新发现(recent discoveries)之前对眼睛感光系统的认识,即,the signals that synchronize the body's clock were handled through the same pathways that we use to see (眼睛所接受到的平衡生物钟的光信号同样作用于人类的视觉系统),也就是说,研究者之前认为人类的眼睛只有一个感光系统。但最新发现却是,人的眼睛有两个感光系统。

          完形填空:

      Germs on Banknotes

        People in different countries use different types of 1 yuan in China, pesos in Mexico, pounds in the United Kingdom, dollars in the United States, Australia and New Zealand. They may use 2 currencies, but these countries, and probably all countries, still have one thing in common1: Germs on the banknotes.

        Scientists have been studying the germs on money for well over2 100 years. At the turn of the 20th 3 , some researchers began to suspect that germs living on money could spread disease.

        Most studies of germy money have looked at the germs on the currency 4 one country. In a new study, Frank Vriesekoop3 and other researchers compared the germ populations found on bills of different 5 .

        Vriesekoop3 is a microbiologist at the University of Ballarat in Australia4. He led the study, which compared the germ populations found on money 6 from 10 nations. The scientists studied 1,280 banknotes in total; all came from places where people buy food, like supermarkets street vendors and cafes, 7 those businesses often rely on cash.

        Overall, the Australian dollars hosted the fewest live bacteria ---- no more than 10 per square centimeter. Chinese yuan had the most ---- about 100 per square centimeter. Most of the germs on money probably would not cause harm.

        What we call “paper” money usually isn't made from paper. The U. S. dollar, for example, is printed on fabric that is mostly 8 .Different countries may use different 9 to print their money. Some of the currencies studied by Vriesekoop and his 10 such as the American dollar were made from cotton. Others were made from polymers.

        The three 11 with the lowest numbers of bacteria were all printed on polymers. They included the Australian dollar, the New Zealand dollar and some Mexican pesos.

        The other currencies were printed on fabric made 12 of cotton. Fewer germs lived on the polymer notes. This connection suggests that 13 have a harder time staying alive on polymer surfaces. Scientists need to do more studies to understand how germs live on money-----and whether or not we need to be concerned. Vnesekoop is now starting a study that will 14 the amounts of time bacteria can stay alive on different types of bills.

        Whatever Vriesekoop finds, the fact remains: Paper money harbors germs We should wash our 15 after touching it; after all5, you never know where your money 's been. Or what's living on it

        词汇:

        pesos/pi:səvs/ n .比索 bacterium /kæk'tiəriəm/ n .细菌(单数)

        germ/dʒə:m/ n.病菌 bacteria /bæktiəriə/细菌(复数)

        banknote/bæŋknəvt/ n.纸币 centimeter/senti,mi:tə。/ n.厘米

        microbiologist /,maikrəv,baiɔlədʒist/n.微生 polymer/pɔlimə / n. [高分子」聚合物

        物学家 harbor/ha:bə/ v.怀有,藏有

        vendor/vendəI/n.小贩

        注释:

        1.have one thing in common :有一个共同点

        2. well over :大大超过

        3. Frank Vriesekoop : Frank Vriesekoop 博士是巴拉瑞特大学的食品微生物学家,他率领一个全球研究小组对至少10个国家的纸币展开了分析。他的研究结果是:相对于比较落后贫穷的国家,富裕发达国家的纸币所携带的病菌较少。重要的是,世界各地纸币上的病菌数量都没有达到令人担心的程度。研究还发现纸币使用的年限和材质对纸币的污染程度也有影响。

        4. University of Ballarat in Australia:澳大利亚巴拉瑞特大学。该校建立于1994年,位于维多利亚省的巴拉瑞特市。

        5. after all:毕竟

        练习:

        1. A coins B money C cheques D loans

        2. A different B clean C hard D foreign

        3. A anniversary B year C decade D century

        4. A along B with C within D outside

        5. A countries B areas C regions D provinces

        6. A delivered B borrowed C gathered D designed

        7. A because B though C when D where

        8. A plastic B rubber C cotton D paper

        9. A languages B colors C substances D materials

        10. A family B team C advisor D boss

        11. A expenses B banks C statements D currencies

        12. A nearly B mostly C likely D merely

        13. A dirt B water C germs D oil

        14. A compare B connect C conduct D command

        15. A arms B hands C face D clothes

        答案与题解:

        1.B 冒号后面说的是各国使用钱币的名称:“yuan in China ,pesos in Mexico,pounds in the United Kingdom,dollars in the United States,Aus往'alia and New Zealand” ,所以填人的词必 定与这些钱币有关,而且应该是钱币的总括词。因此选 money 最为恰当。coins 是“硬币”,cheques 是“支票” ,loans是“贷款”,它们都不会是答案。

        2.A 本题的句子说的是:虽然各国使用的纸币各不相同,它们有一个共同点,那就是纸币上 有病菌。四个选项中 different 是答案。

        3.D 选century 最合理。选 anniversary (周年),year (年)或decade都不合逻辑。

        4.C 本段第二句提供了解答本题的线索。Frank Vriesekoop 的研究与以前的科学家的研究不同,他比较了各国钱币上的病菌数量, 在他之前的科学家的研究范围局限于一个国家的纸币。四个选项中只有 within 表达“在(一个国家)里”的意思。

        5. A 经过第四题选词的思索过程,本题的形容词很自然会在 different 之后用 countries,指不同的国家。

        6. C 上一句说 Vriesekoop 比较不同国家纸币携带病菌的数量。本题的句子明确指出他对比 的纸币涉及十个国家。四个选项中只有 gathered (收集)与上下文的意思相匹配。

        7. A 填词所在的句子与前面的主句存在因果关系。为什么要从食品店和食品摊收集纸币呢?因为这些地方常要用现金支付。本题答案是 because。

        8. C fabric 是“织物”,其制作原料不会是 plastic(塑料)或 rubber( 橡胶)。选 paper 也不对, 因为本句是说明纸币的制作原料通常不是纸。制作 fabric 的原料是 cotton( 棉花),这是合乎常理的。而且该段倒数第二句也提供了答案。所以答案是 cotton。

        9.D 本段说纸币的材料一般不是纸,通常是用棉花织物或高分子聚合物制作的。所以选择materials( 材料、原料)是正确的。

        10. B 本题应当选 team。与 family (家庭成员),advisor (顾问)或 boss (老板)合作研究不是 没有可能,但总有些离谱。与团队合作研究比较合理。

        11. D 本段第二句提供了线索,它列出三种纸币,即 the Australian dollar ,the New Zealand dollar 和 some Mexican pesos。选 currencies 是最合理的。另外三个选项都不合适; expenses是“支出”,banks 是“银行” ,statements 是“账单”。

        12. B 本题只有选 mostly,上下文意思才连贯。

        13. C 前一句说用高分子聚合物制作的钱币含菌数量较少。本题的句子接着分析说,在高分子聚合物上存活较难。谁存活较难?当然是病菌。本题答案是germs0 dirt, water 和oil 是非生物,不存在生存的问题。

        14.A 四个选项填入句子后,句子成了: “…compare/connect/conduct/command the amounts of time bacteria can stay alive on different types of bills”, 很明显;connect (连接)/conduct (实施)/command(控制)amounts of time是无法成立的。只有compare(比较)不同纸币上病菌存活的时间才是Vriesekoop 要研究的新课题。

        15. B人们通常是用手接触纸币的。所以接触纸币后要洗手。答案是hands。

          参考答案:

      理工C

      一、        词汇
      1、        minute——small
      2、        pure——clean
      3、        sharply——critically
      4、        wiped out——destroyed
      5、        constant——regular
      6、        contempt——hate
      7、        secure——hate
      8、        detected——discovered
      9、        assembled——gathered
      10、        proposal——plan
      11、        severe——serious
      12、        inspired——encouraged
      13、        withdraw——draw
      14、        sole——only
      15、        artificial——false

      二、        阅读判断
      1、        Oklahoma is an area often experiencing natural disasters.——Wrong
      2、        The earthquake is the most unpredictable natural disaster.——Right
      3、        Few earthquakes happen without people’s awareness.——Wrong
      4、        Seismometers can identify and locate most of the earthquakes in China.——Not mentioned
      5、        Big earthquakes of a magnitude 8 or higher seldom happen far from the edges of tectonic plates.——Right
      6、        Whenever tectonic plates move, earthquakes happen.——Wrong
      7、        The earthquake that hit the eastern half of the United States two centuries ago is the biggest “mid-plate” one in history.——Wrong

      三、        阅读理解
      第一篇  Archive Gallery: The Best of Bionics
      1、        “Cats”, “monkeys” and “giraffes” mentioned in paragraph 1 are examples to illustrate
      ——animals have skills that humans do not possess.
      2、        Which of the following can be found in the archive gallery?
      ——First practical airplanes built in the late 19th century.
      3、        What happened after the Wright brothers’ success?
      ——People studied more animals and plants to develop the airplane.
      4、        Which of the following is true about the research carried out by the US Army?
      ——It has not succeeded yet.
      5、        What does the writer want to tell in the passage?
      ——Many inventions get ideas from nature.

      第二篇        Puerto Rican cuisine
      1、        The Taino people
      2、        Puerto Rican cuisine
      3、        Puerto Rican cooking has many outside influences.
      4、        It is added to other dished.
      5、        Sofrito is a type of extremely spicy food.

      第三篇        Graphene’s Superstrength(来自于理工教材C级新增文章)
      1、        Graphene
      2、        It is possibly the thinnest material in the word.
      3、        put
      4、        An easy way to find grapheme
      5、        it can help to make electronic components smaller.

      四、        完形填空  Germs on Banknotes(来自于理工教材C级新增文章)
      1、        common
      2、        century
      3、        within
      4、        countries
      5、        gathered
      6、        because
      7、        most
      8、        usually
      9、        materials
      10、        currencies
      11、        other
      12、        connection
      13、        how
      14、        compare
      15、        carries

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